HUNG OUT TO DRY Swimming and British Culture: INDEX
A

Abraham 48
Adam & Eve 41, 75-6
Æthelberht King of Kent 16
afterglow 58
air bath 79
Akemanceaster 15
alcohol, danger when swimming 103
Alfred the Great, King of Wessex 16
algae, blue/green 132, 147
allergy's 151
Amoebic Meningitis 144
anglers, equally at risk 107
Anglo Saxons 15, 116
Aquae Sulis 15
Armstrong, Mr of Leicester Bede House 126
ASA 23, 66, 120
Assyrian swimmers 12-3
asthma 101, 110, 124
Augustine of Canterbury 15
Augustine of Hippo 41, 51, 75

B

bacteria, water quality 140
Baden Powell, Robert 28, 49, 72, 124
baptism 16, 42, 76
barley straw, inhibits algal growth 147-8
Barrie, Sir James 94
Bath Lane baths, Leicester 120
Bath, City of 12, 14-5, 19-20, 27, 44-5, 55, 116, 144
Bathers, painting by Henry Scott Tuke 65-6
bathing machines 20, 61-2, 64, 66-7, 85
bathing, mixed 13-4, 41, 44-6, 63-4, 67-8, 97, 118, 125, 142
bathrooms 44, 67, 125
Beach Hut 64
Beal, Benjamin 20
Beckyngton, Bishop 44
Bedale, Dr 23
Bede House, Leicester 125-9, 138
Bekkers, Dr 47
Bible 39-40, 43, 47-8, 53, 75-7
Black Death 44
black smoke, public health act 80
Blackpool 57
bladders, swimming aid 17
Bladud, Prince 14
Blood, Colonel 18
boarding houses 69
Bourne Bottom 59
Bournemouth 59
Braunstone, Leicester 132, 134-7
breaststroke 21-2, 28
Brighthelmstone 20
Brighton 20, 59, 63
Bristol 36, 106, 113, 145, 147-8
British culture 66, 71, 77
British Empire 21, 30, 36, 53, 78, 151
British Swimming Club 64
brothels, bathhouses 44
Bubonic Plague 44
Bubwith, Bishop 15
Burgess, T W 23
Butlin’s Holidays 34, 69
Buxton 12, 115
Byron, Lord 21

C

Caer Baden 15
calecons 67
Cambridge 16-7, 21, 67, 92
canal, swimming 7, 71, 102-3, 108, 126, 129, 134, 152
cancer 71, 75, 89, 102
canoeing 107, 135, 149
Caracalla 13
Carry on Camping, (1968) 84
Celts 14
changing areas for swimmers 62-3, 72, 91, 95-7, 122, 126, 137
Channel swimming 23-4, 119
Charles II, King 18, 45
Cherwell, river Oxford 16, 91
chlorination, effects on swimmers 109, 129
chlorination, lack of 129
chlorination, lake water 97
Christianity 16, 40, 53
circumcision 46-9, 85, 120
Clacton on-Sea 59
Clarke’s baths, Leicester 118, 120
cleanliness 15-6, 22, 39, 40, 44, 48, 53, 139
clouties 57
coal strike (1921) 80
cola and tummy bugs 108
Colchester 64
cold water
aversion today 147, 151
bathing 19, 125, 144
cure 18, 55
ordeal 43
benefits 58
bodies reaction to 27, 51
effect on body 18, 49, 104-5
precaution against immorality 42
Constantine, Emperor 42
continental holidays 33-4, 88, 103, 126
Cook, Thomas 57-8, 118, 122
co-ordination dyslexia swimming 35
Cornwall 57, 120, 134, 142
Falmouth 66
Fowey 104
Hayle 100
Penzance 110, 141
Polruan 105
Portreath 21
St Ives 4, 142
Cossington Street baths, Leicester 120-1
costume, swimming 8, 19, 55, 61, 63, 67-1, 78, 84, 91, 95, 118, 125, 138, 141, 150, 152
crime rise due to reduced amenities 100
Cromwell Oliver 52
Crusades 51
Cryptosporidum 110
Cuckoo Weir, Eton school 105
culture 9, 36, 46, 49, 52-4, 72, 75, 77, 85, 88, 115, 117, 138, 148, 151

D

D’Arblay, Madame 20
Daily Mail campaign, water quality 129
Dames’ Delight, Oxford 91
Dare, Joseph Leicester 67, 117
dawn swim 19, 58, 90, 94, 97
day trips origin 57, 60
De Arte Natandi 17
Defoe Daniel 19
Denmark, beaches clothing optional 72
devices, swimming aids 22
Devil
bathers likened to 16, 42-3, 53
swimmers likened to 44
Digby, Everard 17
diphtheria 129
distance swimming 21, 24, 120, 122
diving 7, 21, 32-3, 36, 74, 91-2, 94, 97-105, 110, 126, 128, 130, 136-7, 140, 142-4, 146-8, 150
drowning 11, 17, 24-5, 27, 31-2, 36, 39, 102, 104-5, 109, 139
ducking of witches 43
dyslexia and swimming 35

E

early morning swim 58, 90, 94, 97
eau-de-cologne replaced washing 16
Eden, expulsion from 41
Eden, garden of 41, 75-6, 84
Ederle, Gertrude (Channel swimmer) 24
Education Act 30
Education Authorities dyslexia 35
Education, Board, swimming (1891) 30
Edward VII, King 28
Egyptians 11, 75, 77
Elizabeth, Queen 16
Emmanuel College, Cambridge 21
Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1797 21
Environment Agency 108, 134, 147
ergotism and witchcraft 43
Eton, school 67, 104
Ezekiel, Bible book 40

F

Fabian, Leo 96
Falk, Bernard 78
Falmouth, Cornwall 66, 134
Farleigh, river swimming club 143
fertility and Chlorine 110
fi-clor, use in paddling pools 132
filtration swimming pool water 129
Finland, culture 72
Finsen, Nobel Laureate 78
Fletcher, Jennie of Leicester 121, 151
Floyer, Sir John 18
foot shower 72
football, comparison with swimming 51, 93, 123-4
Footlight Parade, film (1933) 32
Forsberg, Gerald 94
Fowey Cornwall 104
Fraser, Alexander 45
Frei-körper-kultur 80
frog as swimming instructor 21
front crawl, swimming stroke 12, 22
fun pools 34

G

Gentleman’s Magazine (1769) 20
George III, King 20, 24, 59
George IV, King 20, 59
George V, King 95-6
Germany, culture comparison 25, 72, 77-8, 80-1, 85
Glasgow pool attendance records 30
Goldring, Douglas 95
Greek culture 48, 75, 77
Gregory I, Pope 15
guilt, intrinsic to British culture 46, 71
gymnasium, Greek 75
gymnasium, Roman 13
Gymnosophists 69, 81

H

Hadrian, Emperor 14
Hampstead Heath, London 93, 103, 142, 145
Hardman, William 64
Hayle, Cornwall 100
Health and Safety Commission 33, 130, 147
Health and Safety Executive 148
health and safety regulations 99, 123, 133, 140, 144, 148, 150
Henleaze Swimming Club 36, 145
Henry I, King 15
Henry IV, King 16
Henry VIII, King 17, 45
Hitler, Adolf 81
holiday camps 69
holidays 34, 36, 55, 59, 60-1, 63, 69-70, 77-8, 88-9, 98, 118, 149, 150
Hollywood 32, 83
homosexuality 14, 46, 84, 115
hospitals and cleanliness 102, 108
hot water’, ‘getting into 42
hotels & bathing facilities 44
Houghton, Fred 94
Hyde Park, London 4, 24, 39, 69, 93, 143
Hydrotherapy 55

I

immersion, total baptism 42
indecent exposure 64, 95
indoor pools, lack of profit 100
Industrial Revolution 12, 52, 60, 66, 74, 80, 85, 112, 151
inspector of public nuisances, Leicester 117
Institute of Baths Management 34
instruction, swimming 11, 31, 83, 126, 146
Internet and child pornography 82
Isaiah, prophet and bible book 76

J

James I, King 43
Japan 46
Jarvis, Mr J A swimming champion 24, 121
Jerome, Church father 39-41, 75
Jesus, Christ 40, 42, 44, 76
Jews 48, 49, 76
Julius Caesar 11

K

Kellogg, John Harvey (cornflakes) 46
Kenwood, lido Leicester 127, 128
Kenworthy, Harold 22
Keown, Eric (Punch) 96
Keynes Country Park 148
Kilverts, Parson 64
Knitted swimming costumes 68

L

Lambert, Daniel 116, 122
Lansbury, George 95, 143
Leicester 5, 7, 22, 24, 36, 57, 67-8, 102, 112, 115-140, 152
Abbey Meadows 117, 119, 122, 124-5, 129
Aylestone baths 121
Bede House 119, 125
Kenwood Lido 127
regeneration, Braunstone 136
St Margaret’s Baths 130
Turkish Baths 119
Lewis, C S, loved Parsons Pleasure 91
Leysin, Switzerland sun clinic 79
lidos 33, 39, 69, 89-104, 110, 112, 127-8, 139, 143, 145
lifeguards 28, 100, 103-4, 110, 140, 143, 148-9
lifesaving 17, 22, 24, 27, 31, 104, 140, 147
litigation, fear of 33, 134, 150
Liverpool 57
London 4, 7, 16, 21-2, 24, 44, 46, 59, 81, 93, 96, 103, 109-10, 118, 121, 127, 142, 143, 150
Hampstead Heath 103, 142, 145
Parliament Hill Lido 143
Serpentine 4, 24, 27, 93, 95, 139, 143
Victoria Park lake 7, 23, 26, 93, 129, 150
London-on-Sea 109
Long Bridges, Oxford 92
longboats and water quality 126
Longfellow Wilbert 32

M

Maecenas Gaius 11
Man and Sunlight, Hans Suren (1924) 80
Margate 20, 59, 62
masturbation 47-9, 85, 120
McDonald, Dr medical officer 129
Merry-Go-Round, BBC sex education 86
middle class 39, 46, 48, 51-2, 54, 59, 61, 63, 66, 69-70, 73-4, 85-6, 88, 117-8, 137-8, 150
Midland Counties Railways, tours 57
Minerva, Roman deity 15
missionaries and culture 52, 88
modesty hoods and bathing machines 62
monks of Bath 15
morals and swimming costumes 55
Music Hall, seaside 24

N

Napoleon 16
National Swimming Society 93
naturism 69, 80-5, 88
Nelson, Horatio 21
New York Times 23
Nightingale, Florence 78
Nile, river 11
Norman Conquest 16
nude baptism, early Christians 42, 76
nudity, male Victorian perception of 68
nuns, morality bathing 42

O

Olympic Games 32, 71, 121, 130
Olympics, 1900 Paris 121
Onania 47
Oxford 16, 67, 91-2
ozone layer 89

P

package holidays, Spain 70
paddling pools 34, 92, 97-8, 100, 109, 132-3, 136, 140, 143
paedophiles 71, 82-4, 100, 150
Palm, Dr Adrian 78
Panathenaic Festival 75
paperboys, free swims Leicester 126
Parsons Pleasure, Oxford 16, 91
Paul, Apostle 40
peeping toms, seaside telescope 61
Penzance, Cornwall 110, 141
Peter Pan 94
Peter, apostle swimming? 40
Peterborough Lido 98
Phenolic disinfectant in hospitals 102
Philip, Dr Robin 106
photography and child protection 82-3
physicians recommend bathing 44
Picture Post 51
piers, seaside 22, 59
polio 101, 105, 112, 131
pollution 8, 108-9, 112, 131, 139
polo, water 23, 122, 142
Polruan, children swim harbour 104
Portreath, Cornwall 21
Post Bridge, Devon 113
postcards, saucy 61, 67, 81, 86, 88
Princess Alice, steamboat 26, 120
promenade at the seaside 59, 142
prostitutes and bathing 41, 45
prudery, British 26, 52, 54, 61, 72, 74, 82, 85-6, 88, 112, 120, 138-9
Public Bath & Wash Houses Act 25
Public Health Act, 1875 80
public schools and swimming 30
pudenda, sex organs renamed 41
Punch, magazine 96

Q

quarries, swimming in 145-6, 150

R

rags as swimwear 68
Red Cross water safety program 32
Red Indians, American swimmers 22
religion, influence 39-40, 46, 48, 51, 53-4, 73, 86, 88, 96, 112, 116
rescue 24-5, 27-8, 30, 32, 99, 103, 109, 124, 137, 140, 147
resuscitation 25, 27
rickets 78-9, 98
river bathing 8, 11-3, 16, 18-9, 23-4, 26, 28, 30, 34-6, 42, 58, 63, 67-8, 77, 81, 90-2, 101-9, 112, 115-7, 119-144, 150-1
Robinson Crusoe (1719) 19
Rochdale canal, Manchester 108
Rollier, Dr 79
Romans 11-2, 14-6, 21, 30, 35-6, 41-43, 46, 75, 77, 112, 115, 138, 144
Rome 12-3, 16
Royal Humane Society 24-5, 27, 94-5
Royal Life Saving Society 27
rush floats, swimming aid 12, 115
Rutland Water, blue/green algae 132
rye grass, ergot and witchcraft 43

S

sanitation and health 40, 67, 101
sauna culture 72, 130
savages, lack of attire 19, 53, 78
Scandinavia, culture 72
Scarborough 18, 57, 62-3
Scott, Samuel 21
Scouts 28, 30, 49
sea bathing 20-1, 32, 51, 55, 57, 61, 63-4, 70, 78, 118, 140, 141
seawater as medicine 18
Serpentine, London 4, 24, 27, 93-7, 139, 143
sewage in rivers 26, 108
sex education 86, 88
Shakespeare, William 17
shame 39, 46, 53, 68, 72, 75-6, 85, 88, 117
Shanklin, Isle-of-White 64
shaving body hair for speed 71
Shulammite maiden, Bible 76
sidestroke 21
signs 'no swimming' danger of 124, 135
Skegness 69
skin cancer 71, 75, 89
skinny-dipping 67, 83, 94, 97
Slip-Slop-Slap campaign Australia 89
slum living conditions 52, 62, 85
Soar, river Leicester 140
solarium, Roman household 75
Southend-on-Sea 59
Southport 59
Spanish holidays 70
spas 15, 18-20, 42, 55, 57, 59, 61, 144
spectators, accommodation 98, 122, 130
Spence Street baths, Leicester 120
Spinney Hill Park, Leicester 124
St Clements, Oxford bathing place 91
St Ives, Cornwall 4, 142
St Leonard’s baths, Leicester 122
St Margaret’s Baths, Leicester 130
steamboat, Princess Alice 25
Stoter, Mr Ted 96
Studland Nature Reserve 84
Sul, deity 14-5
sun cream 89
sun cure 79
sun lamps 80
sunbathing 36, 61, 69-70, 74-5, 78, 80-1, 84-5, 88-9, 97-8, 110, 112, 126-7, 139, 142-3, 146
Suren, Hans 80
Swainswick 14
swimming drills 31
Swimming Magazine (March 1884) 64
swimwear 8, 19, 55, 61, 63, 67-72, 78, 83-4, 91, 95, 97, 118, 120, 125, 138, 141, 150
Switzerland 72

T

Tarzan 32, 83
Teignmouth 33, 90
telescope at seaside 61
television effect on childrens activity 33, 83
tents, bathing 67
Thames, River 18-9, 24-6, 28, 31, 109, 120, 146
The Times 22
Tiber, River 12
Tidal pools 140
tin bath for bathing 67, 125
train, as holiday transport 57, 118
Travelling Light, naturist film 83
Trocadero, Leicester 128
tuberculosis 79, 98
Tuke, Henry Scott 66, 120
Tumbling Bay, Oxford 92
Turkish baths 22, 119
typhoid fever 129

U

underwear, bathing unnecessary 20
United Ladies Swimming Club, Leicester 125

V

vandalism at Lidos 99
vehicles, death by drowning 102
Venereal disease & bathing 45
verrucas 110
Vestry Street baths, Leicester 120
Victoria Park lake, London 7, 23, 26, 93, 129, 150
Victoria, Queen 52, 59, 118
Vikings 16
Visitor Book at seaside 59

W

walkers, death by drowning 102, 108
warm water swimming baths, Leicester 118
Warrilow, Mr Mark lido owner 128
Wash Houses Act 22
water quality, bathing waters 129, 132
water safety film 139
Waterlog, Roger Deakin 90, 144
Webb, Captain Matthew 23-4, 112, 119, 151
weeds, danger of entanglement 107, 135
Weil’s disease 106-7, 124, 147
Weissmuller, Johnny 32
wells, holy 45, 55, 57
Welsh Harp Reservoir, Hendon, London 81
Western-Super-Mare 100, 101
White House, USA, first bathroom 44
Whitgift, John, swimming restrictions 17
Windermere, Lake 24
windsurfer, first 23
witchcraft 43, 112
witches and water 43, 115
Wittie, Dr 18
Woodbridge, William 23
working class 22, 39, 46, 48, 52, 59-62, 66-7, 69-71, 85-6


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